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The classic boxing blows are within the so-called Boxing Technique , we need to apply a name to each blow to differentiate them from each other, as the trajectories and the way of execution of each of them are clearly different.

This need for a specific name is given by the repetition during technical actions of very similar blows, which, without being exactly the same, meet certain standards in their execution or in their trajectory that makes us clearly identify them with a name for each of them.

For his career:

  • STRAIGHTS: (Direct, jab) Both are the same in their trajectory and execution. They only differ in their application and final strength.
  • CURVES: – Side ( Crochet )
  • Vertical ascending: ( Uppercut or hook)
  • (Hook)
  • MIXED: -Long side punch with rotated fist (Swing)

SPECIFIC BLOWS:

Therefore, in our boxing terminology we use specific blows that, although very similar, some of them differ due to their trajectory, their execution or their application, they are:

  • JAB : It is used to: maintain distance, to start a combination, as a deception blow for another subsequent action, to "worry" the rival... It is ultimately a less "accentuated" direct. Lower impact force and usually left in right-handed or orthodox guard fighters.
  • DIRECT : from the left (always the other way around for left-handers) it is a more forceful blow than the Jab, the fighter who executes it has to be well supported on the ground and with greater momentum from the hip, shoulder and body turn. It is used to stop the rival who "enters", to destabilize him, to hit hard. Many technicians, boxers and fans confuse both. However, in English they perfectly differentiate (those who really know) a “jab” from a “straight-left”.
  • CROCHET : it is a lateral blow with a trajectory parallel to the ground that is directed at the opponent's face.
  • UPPERCUT or HOOK : it is a blow that is directed from bottom to top looking for the opponent's chin.
  • HOOK or “stab blow” as the Cubans say. It can be considered as a blow that, being similar in its execution to an uppercut that is applied to the chin, is a variant of this applied to the body. It can also be applied to the chin with an oblique upward trajectory.
  • SWING : it is a long crochet in which the fist is rotated to impact the knuckle area.

When analyzing the peculiar characteristics of the specific boxing blow (regardless of its trajectory), we must take into account that the application of general formulas acceptable for other types of blows, such as the kick of a ball, the blow of the racket of a tennis player or the slap of a boleiball player are very different from the blow used in boxing, although many of their biomechanical laws are applicable, they are not all.

It was a very common error in Boxing Technique Treaties and Manuals to consider a series of Physics Laws as applicable to the analysis of the boxer's blow, fundamentally studying the bone segments of the boxer, without taking into account the entire striking unit, that is meaning the entire body of the person striking.

The movements of a striking arm are not the same in all circumstances, they do not depend only on the trajectory or preparation of the movement, the degree of muscle contraction at the exact moment of impact is decisive.

The correctly applied punch is the last link in the kinetic chain of movement of the entire rest of the body that applies it. We don't just hit with the arm; We hit with the fist, but in that blow a complete movement is involved, which must be coordinated and synchronized, which begins at the feet of the person executing it, continues through the legs to his waist, is transmitted by the rotation of the hip and by the Correct alignment of the shoulder with the arm, forearm, wrist and fist. That is, up to the shocking edge of the knuckles.

It must be synchronized, in that it should not be done in parts (first turning the feet, then rotating the hips, later advancing the shoulder, and finally extending the arm and fist), but rather performing all the movements at the same time. In one go. As we will see later, each correct blow fully complies with the Laws studied by scientists and that we can list as the power of the blow depends on:

  1. The magnitude of the mass that hits (fist, arm and shoulder) and its speed of arrival at the point of impact. (2nd Law of Dynamics F = MxV/t = Mass x acceleration). In this case the mass and acceleration are inversely proportional, that is, as the weight increases, the boxer's speed is always lower. A 51 kg boxer. He has greater speed in his blows than another 90 kg.
  2. Correct calculation of the distance to the point of impact (accuracy
    1. The duration of the contact.
    2. The alignment of kinetic chains.
    3. The mastery of the one who hits.
    4. Violent muscle contraction at the exact moment of impact (blocking of the joints involved) and instantaneous return to the initial position.
    5. The intentionality of the one who hits. His decision to do it with power.
    6. The coordination of total body movement. From the feet to the edge of the knuckles he hits.
    7. The synchronization of said movement, that is, it is executed in a single unit of time. In one go.

    THE GUARD (INITIAL COMBAT POSITION)

    The typical boxer's stance from which all attack and defense movements start and begin is known as GUARD.

    In itself, the guard position is a passive defense posture, since the arms adopt the attitude of protecting the fighter's vulnerable areas and at the same time intercept or deflect the opponent's blows. Even the leg position allows for backward or lateral movements that are part of the boxer's defense.

    We should not confuse the technically orthodox guard with the multiple postures of many boxers and which are characteristics and personal of great champions.

    Years ago there was talk of different types of guard depending on the countries of origin of the boxers, so we see in many treatises on boxing technique how it is said that there is an English, French, or American guard. These are really authentic fantasies of the authors.

    If we examine the recordings of great American champions, we will observe that Joe Louis' guard had little in common with Max Baer's, or Henry Armstrong's with Ray Sugar Robinson's, not to mention Tyson's with Foreman's.

    The evolution of Boxing Technique over the last fifty years prevents us from classifying guard positions by country, since today there are many “American-style” boxers in Europe or the East, and many others “European-style” in the same USA

    We can, however, make a clarification about the fundamental differences between the typical amateur guard (more pronounced among those in High Competition) and the guard of professional boxers.

    The amateur guard is more frontal and closed given the need for more continuous hitting with both hands.

    The left fist should be at shoulder height and it should be kept elevated to avoid the possibility of side blows.

    The elbow should be located at an intermediate distance between the fist and the shoulder, that is, the arm should form a V, with an angle between 30 and 45º, and vertical. The fist should be at the same height as the shoulder. Without contracting muscles.

    The tendency towards exaggerated verticality of the forearm is a very pronounced defect, since in this case two movements must be carried out to extend the arm, the first to place the forearm in the shooting position and the second to raise the elbow while We rotate the forearm to align the joints (shoulder, elbow, wrist) and place the fist in the correct impact position.

    Being, as it is, economy of movements a priority objective, to achieve correct technique, a correct posture of the arm must be adopted in the guard position, as we said before, in V, in which the resistance of the arms does not have to be overcome. the antagonist muscles to proceed to full extension, allowing maximum speed to be reached and violent muscular contraction at the final moment of impact, which is what will determine the power of the blow (without forgetting, the slight driving turn of the foot, hip and shoulder , to apply the full weight at the point of impact).

    The right arm will be placed slightly further back, at the same height as the left shoulder, in front of the chin and lateral to it, with a distance approximately that of the extended thumb. The elbow will be separated a few centimeters from the liver area in order to avoid the transmission of the effect of any blow to the body that, when blocked with this arm, could push it enough so that its impact could reach the vulnerable area of the liver. .

    All offensive and defensive movements, as well as the correct execution of blows or combinations of these in boxing, largely depend on the guard position.

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